Enhance driver behaviour and Public Acceptance of Connected and Autonomous vehicLes
PAsCAL is an international project aimed to develop a multidimensional map of public acceptance of higher levels of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV), pointing out any critical issues on the matter, particularly investigating the new “driver” needs considering different modes and mobility services. PAsCAL’s goal is to create a “Guide2Autonomy” (G2A), a set of guidelines and recommendations aimed at accelerating the user-friendly evolution of connected automated vehicles and transport systems.
Expectations and Fears of the “Driverless” RevolutionNews postPAsCAL project: The Results of the Survey of the University of Mannheim
Road safety and sustainability key benefits of autonomous driving in the perception of the future European users, but strong privacy concerns emerge
Self-driving cars have for almost a decade been hailed as a potential transformational force for the transport sector. Autonomously steering through traffic, purportedly in a less accident-prone manner, their introduction might be a pivot point, away from the currently…
PAsCAL Project focus group discussions – Action summaryNews postThe PAsCAL project (Enhance driver behaviour and Public Acceptance of Connected and Autonomous vehicLes) is co-funded by the European Union under the EU H2020 programme. The European Blind Union joined this project as it plans, amongst other things, to collect information on “visually impaired travellers and the connected transport environment”. In response to a call from the EBU at the end of 2020, the Italian Union of the Blind and Partially Sighted (UICI) committed to organising 4 Focus…
Autonomous driving in virtual preview and full safetyNews postTwo sophisticated simulations to evaluate the acceptability and behaviors towards autonomous vehicles
Two experiments involving significant simulation resources and numerous volunteer subjects recently took place at UBFC, in the context of the PAsCAL project. Indeed, UBFC coordinates five simulation experiments of the PAsCAL project and directly operates two of them. The other three are carried out by the LIST (Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology) and the University of Liverpool. …
Consequences of autonomous vehicles: Ambivalent expectations and their impact on acceptance
Connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) are within reach of widespread deployment on public roads, but public perceptions are ambivalent. The objective of the present research was to assess expectations about the consequences of CAV introduction. These expectations should explain CAV acceptance, but their relative importance is poorly understood. We conducted a survey with a representatively drawn panel sample (N = 529) from France, Germany, Italy, and the UK. The survey consisted of a large item pool of expected consequences from CAV introduction, as well as general and affective evaluation of CAVs, ease of use, and behavioral intention to use CAVs. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four facets of expected consequences: road safety, privacy, efficiency and ecological sustainability. On average, expectations were mostly positive for ecological sustainability and safety, but negative for privacy. At the same time, substantial variance existed between respondents and between countries. For safety and efficiency, improvement was expected by a third of respondents, while another third expected worsening. Respondents from Italy expected more positive consequences for safety, while respondents from both France and Germany expected more negative consequences for privacy. To different degrees, all four facets predicted the intention to use CAVs in a structural equation model, primarily via affective evaluations. For policy makers, manufacturers, and service providers, understanding the trade-offs inherent to different CAV solutions will be central to ensure citizens’ needs are respected.
Legal issues in automated vehicles: critically considering the potential role of consent and interactive digital interfaces
Some of the first ‘automated’ vehicles to be deployed on our roads will require a system of shared driving with a human driver. While this creates technical and operational challenges, the law must also facilitate such a transfer. One method may be to obtain the driver’s consent to share operational responsibility and to delineate legal responsibility between vehicle and driver in the event of an accident. Consent is a voluntary agreement where an individual is aware of the potential consequences of their consent, including the risks. The driver of a partially automated vehicle must be informed of potential risks before giving consent to share operational responsibility. This paper will refer to the inherent dangers associated with shared operational responsibility, in particular where there has been a request for the driver to take back control from the automated vehicle during the journey. Drivers are likely to experience delay in regaining situational awareness, making such operational transfers hazardous. It is argued that where an interactive digital interface is used to convey information, such as driver responsibility, risk and legal terms, drivers may fail to sufficiently process such communications due to fundamental weaknesses in human–machine interaction. The use of an interactive digital interface alone may be inadequate to effectively communicate information to drivers. If the problems identified are not addressed, it is argued that driver consent may be inconsequential, and fail to facilitate a predicable demarcation of legal responsibility between automated vehicles and drivers. Ongoing research into automated vehicle driver training is considered as part of the preparation required to design driver education to a level whereby drivers may be able to sufficiently understand the responsibilities involved in operating a partially automated vehicle, which has implications for future driver training, licensing and certification.
Ambivalence in stakeholders’ views on connected and autonomous vehicles
Connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) are often discussed as a solution to pressing issues of the current transport systems, including congestion, safety, social inclusion and ecological sustainability. Scientifically, there is agreement that CAVs may solve, but can also aggravate these issues, depending on the specific CAV solution. In the current paper, we investigate the visions and worst-case scenarios of various stakeholders, including representatives of public administrations, automotive original equipment manufacturers, insurance com-panies, public transportation service providers, mobility experts and politicians. A qualitative analysis of 17 semi-structured interviews is presented. It reveals experts’ ambivalence towards the introduction of CAVs, reflecting high levels of uncertainty about CAV consequences, including issues of efficiency, comfort and sustainability, and concerns about co-road users such as pedestrians and cyclists. Implications of the sluggishness of policymakers to set boundary conditions and for the labor market are discussed. An open debate between policymakers, citi-zens and other stakeholders on how to introduce CAVs seems timely.